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\plain \cbpat8\ql\li0\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0\tx1170 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw-17\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs22 222{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\expndtw3 KUJ0LA AND VlMA KADPHISES}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li4\fi0\ri29\sb227\sa0\sl-241\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex93\expndtw23\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 nu about 140 B.C. The Yueh-chi then made their \expndtw17 way into the Oxus valley, subjugating a prosperous \expndtw8 and peaceful people called the Ta-hia (Bactrians) by the \expndtw18 Chinese. The Yueh-chi gradually occupied Bactria \expndtw10 and Sogdiana, and by the beginning of the first century \expndtw16 B.C. they gave up their nomadic habits of life. They}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li205\fi0\ri0\sb97\sa0\sl-126\slmult0\tx2614\tx3384\tx5177 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex93\expndtw7\loch\af0\hich\af0\dbch\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 \'97\hich\af0\dbch\af2\loch\f0\cchs0 ,     \i\sub r\nosupersub      \i0 in \loch\af0\hich\af0\dbch\f2\cchs0 \'95\hich\af0\dbch\af2\loch\f0\cchs0    .    became divided into  five principali-\line \expndtw-6 The  five   Pnnci-     \loch\af0\hich\af0\dbch\f2\cchs0 \'95{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\sub\expndtw-20\hich\af0\dbch\af2\loch\f0\cchs0 T\nosupersub -r{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\expndtw-11\loch\af0\hich\af0\dbch\f2\cchs0 \'95\hich\af0\dbch\af2\loch\f0\cchs0     \scaps /-m{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\scaps0\i\expndtw-27 rs-}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li0\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0\sl-238\slmult0\tx1897 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw-16\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 palitieg{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\expndtw2 ties :    riieu-mi,  Cnouang-mo,   Kou-}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li7\fi1890\ri18\sb0\sa0\sl-238\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw6\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 ei-Chouang, Hi-thun, Kao-fu. Near\-\expndtw2 ly a century after this division, the \i Yabghu \i0 or \i Yavuga (Jdbgou) \i0 of the Kouei-Chouang (Kushan) defeated the \expndtw8 other four, and thus all were united in one kingdom \expndtw4 under the former, named ICieou-tsieouk'io. This king \i\expndtw1 (Wang) \i0 has been identified with the Kujula Kadphises of}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li212\fi0\ri0\sb130\sa0\sl-97\slmult0\tx2264 \f2\fs20{\b0\i\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw9\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 v \expndtw34 --i\expndtw9  ^ \i0 j \scaps t,-      \scaps0 coins, which afford testimony to the\line \expndtw-15 Ku ula Kadphises{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\scaps\expndtw-7 t    \scaps0\sub n\nosupersub        .      .         \sub r\nosupersub  -,     \i ^      \i0 /}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li482\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0\sl-241\slmult0\tx1202 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw0\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 '{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\super\expndtw3 r\nosupersub          gradual extinction of the Greek power}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li22\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0\sl-241\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw-1\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 in the Kabul valley. For some coins have the name Kujula \expndtw9 Kasa in Kharosthi and Kozoulo Kadaphes in Greek \expndtw2 along with that of Hermaeus, whereas others do not bear \expndtw7 the latter name at all. It may, therefore, be reasonable \expndtw3 to conclude that at first the two monarchs were allied \expndtw2 together, perhaps to resist the expanding Pahlava power, but subsequently the Kushan rule superseded the Greeks \expndtw15 in the Kabul region. Kujula Kadphises attacked \expndtw7 Parthia, conquered Kipin (probably Gandhara) and \expndtw5 southern Afghanistan. He must have achieved these \expndtw7 victories late in his reign after the death of Gondo-\expndtw13 phernes, who ruled Peshawar in 45 A.D. according \expndtw18 to the Takht-i-Babi inscription. Chinese writers \expndtw11 state that Kujula Kadphises lived up to the age of \expndtw7 eighty, and accordingly his end may be placed in or \expndtw14 about the middle of the third quarter of the first \expndtw9 century A.D.}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li83\fi0\ri0\sb166\sa0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw4\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs23 Vtma Kadphises}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li58\fi468\ri0\sb97\sa0\sl-245\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw5\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 We  learn  from   Chinese  historians  that   Kujula \expndtw3 Kadphises was succeeded by  his   son,   Yen-kao-chen,}\par }